As an integral part of Kentucky State University, the faculty of the School of Nursing correlates its philosophy with that of the institution. The philosophy is consistent with the mission statement of the University through a liberal arts foundation, drawing from diverse populations and commitment to service. The School of Nursing offers small classes in a nurturing and stimulating environment, and prepares graduates to be productive members of society and the profession of nursing.
The philosophy addresses the concepts of persons, health-illness, the environment, nursing, nursing education, the teaching-learning process, the role of the Associate Degree graduate, and the role of the RN-BSN graduate in the scope of nursing practice. The organizing framework of the ADN program is Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, Human Developmental Stages/Tasks, and the Nursing Process. The organizing framework for the RN -BSN program is based on the "Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice".
Each person has physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs that must be met if he/she is to survive, grow, develop, and become a productive member of society. Persons may be categorized as individuals, families, groups, and/or populations.
Persons are perceived as unique individuals with dignity and rights, regardless of race and sex. An individual does not or should not lose his/her dignity and rights as an individual because he/she is sick or well, young or old, clean or unclean, rich or poor, criminal or law-abiding, regardless of his/her national origin, sex, disability, veteran status, age, religion or marital status.
Health is viewed on a continuum of wellness and illness. Optimum health occurs when individuals are functioning at the highest level of their abilities and varies from individual to individual. Illness is a significant stressor that stimulates needs and problems. The ADN graduate should possess knowledge of major health problems stemming from physiological, psychological and sociological needs with predictable outcomes. The RN - BSN graduate should possess knowledge of health promotion, risk reduction, disease prevention as well as illness and disease management to assist the person( individual, family, groups or populations) to achieve an optimal level of health/wellness.
The environment is viewed as external to and affecting the healthy or ill individual. It includes significant others, the nurse, groups, and communities with whom the individual interacts. The focus of the A D N nursing is to provide care in a structured setting to individuals with common health problems. A focus of RN – BSN nursing is to optimize the environment in structured/unstructured settings in order to promote health/wellness, reduce risk factors, prevent disease and illness and disease management.
Nursing practice is assisting the person (individual, family, groups or community) with an actual or potential illness to optimize their level of health/wellness. The ADN graduate is an accountable, adaptive generalist prepared to successfully take the NCLEX-RN and function as a Registered Nurse in diverse care settings. The RN-BSN graduate functions autonomously and collaboratively using holistic nursing practice, having increased focus on health promotion and risk reduction.
Associate Degree education in nursing is:
- A two-year college curriculum with a core of liberal studies support courses making up approximately one-half of the total credit hours.
- Selective studies in the fields of the humanities, biophysical, and psychosocial sciences.
- Application of the nursing process for decision making.
- Education which leads to competence in the direct nursing care of patients and to the granting of an associate degree.
RN – BSN education in nursing is:
- A one year nursing curriculum, built on nursing knowledge, theory and research, designed to expand the experience, knowledge, and skills of the ADN/Diploma graduate.
- An expanded core of liberal arts courses.
- Education which leads to an expanded role of provider, designer, manager, and coordinator of care, and member of the profession.
- Education which provides the foundation for graduate education.
The teaching learning process is a behavioral change which is achieved through a planned sequence of experiences. The student should be self-directed and self motivated to successfully complete the program. Special efforts are made to meet the needs of nontraditional students. Nontraditional students include, but are not limited to, full time and part time commuting students, students older than the traditional high school graduate and educationally and/or socioeconomically diverse students. The ADN applicant who does not meet the admission requirements may be admitted as a Pre Nursing student. Pre-nursing students are evaluated for admission to the Nursing program after demonstrating their ability to succeed academically.
Teaching learning activities are planned to reinforce theory and clinical, and motivate interaction between the learner and the environment. At the ADN level, the faculty directs the students’ learning experiences, challenges the student with carefully selected problem solving situations, and assists the student in developing nursing skills. At the RN- BSN level, the faculty acts as a facilitator in teaching and learning. The faculty and student collaborate in the development of clinical learning experiences.
The role of the Associate Degree Nursing graduate within the scope of nursing practice can be described as:
- A highly skilled practitioner whose practice is limited in scope but not in depth;
- An intellectually and manually competent individual providing direct quality nursing care;
- One who applies the nursing process in a structured setting to individuals with common health problems stemming from physiological, psychological, and sociological needs. These are major and well defined health problems with predictable outcomes;
- One who uses Mental Health Concepts and communication skills with individuals and groups by developing and maintaining goal directed interactions to encourage expression of feelings and/or needs and to identify, suggest, and support positive coping behaviors;
- One who meets the following eight core components of nursing practice as established by the Council of Associate Degree Nursing Competencies Task Force 2000 with support from the National Organization of Associate Degree Nursing:
- Professional Behaviors
- Clinical Decision Making
- Caring Interventions
- Teaching and Learning
- Managing Care
Within the totality of nursing practice, "the Associate Degree nurse is an accountable, adaptable generalist who is prepared to successfully take the NCLEX-RN and function as a Registered Nurse in diverse care settings. As Registered Nurses these graduates are members of the community of nursing, collaborating with the client, significant support person(s), and other members of the health care team to assist the client to achieve positive outcomes." (NLN Educational Competencies for Graduates of Associate Degree Nursing Programs – 2000)
The role of the RN-BSN graduate as outlined in the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1998, can be described as a professional nurse who possesses:
The core competencies of:
- Professional Values
- Human Dignity
- Social Justice
The core knowledge of:
- Critical Thinking
- Technical Skills
The Role Development
- Health Promotion, Risk Reduction and Disease Prevention
- Illness and Disease Management
- Informatics and Health Care Technology
- Human Diversity
- Global Health Care
- Health Care System and Policy
- Provider of Care
- Designer/Manager/Coordinator of Care
- Member of a Profession
The RN – BSN program at Kentucky State University is designed to assist ADN and diploma graduates to transition into a broader nursing role, in a wider variety of health care settings while functioning more independently. The RN –BSN program provides the foundation for graduate level education.